Intelligent system of modern intelligent distributed distribution system

Intelligent system of modern intelligent distributed distribution system

There are almost as many definitions and explanations of smart systems and smart grids as there are people in the power industry. It’s no exaggeration to say this: a “smart grid” is generally defined as the use of the latest technology or ideas by a particular company or individual, in a way that maximizes the business case for purchasing these products and services. But looking at all “smart” technologies, two integrated areas of improved capabilities combine to make smart power devices “smart” and produce smart grids, whatever they may be.

1. Device-to-device communication
Mainly due to the improved bandwidth cost performance of digital communications, small units of personal and power systems can communicate in near real time with the central system and, more importantly, with other nearby devices, if desired. If no power is detected, the feeder terminal power monitor notifies the utility’s distribution management system. It can also notify a nearby switch that there is no power in its place. A switch on one circuit can know the status (open – closed) of a switch on another nearby circuit, and the load of the switch on the replacement circuit it protects. Not only is this communication possible, it becomes routine through the device.

2. Sensors and Monitoring Equipment
Technological advancements have expanded the range of measurable and traceable characteristics of a power system, a good example being the phasor measurement unit – the power management unit. Also, in almost all respects, the cost of remote sensing of equipment condition and electrical energy has increased significantly due to the increased periodicity (frequency) with which readings can be generated or read.

3. Prediction and control at the system level
Advances in prediction and control technology at the system level have significantly improved the control capabilities and performance of traditional power systems, by using remote control to inform central control (automatic or manual), and responding with remote control of power generation and transmission and transformation equipment. This has and will continue to change the performance of traditional power systems.

Intelligent system of modern intelligent distributed distribution system
Intelligent system

These advances further expand the potential for coordinated control of distributed resources and surrounding regional distribution systems. The characteristics of this change are subtle and fundamental. In conventional power systems, many equipment units are automatic. The actions of automatic switches and circuit breakers are quite complex. Capacitor banks can be equipped with switches that turn them on or off depending on voltage, power factor, load, or a combination thereof. Voltage regulators and line drop compensators vary the voltage according to their “programs”. All these devices are automatic and the device operates based on the voltage, current, power factor or its operating conditions (temperature, time) etc. measured at its own location.

With the widespread availability of inexpensive numerical estimates, these two techniques allow equipment to monitor and respond to conditions in the vicinity or elsewhere, not just at its own location. Thus, groups of devices can be programmed to work together in a similarly automated fashion. Distribution and point-of-use equipment can be built to “understand” interactions and dependencies with adjacent equipment, and essentially program their automatic actions to respond to local conditions and needs. For example, how to turn the automatic switches and circuit breakers of the past into “smart switches” that understand network configuration, loading loads and outages in nearby circuits, and be able to decide how to respond to different emergency and operational situations. The distributed resource system can automatically change the response and priority order according to local working conditions, regardless of the control type and control topology.

This allows independent or local parts of the power system to control themselves to some extent, at least for a certain period of time and or under certain circumstances (such as a power outage of upstream equipment). But that won’t lead to any major changes to the current state of power system design, unless it’s combined with distributed resources to create a sort of self-contained microgrid. If sufficient local generation and storage are provided, a local distribution system in a residential area can be self-sustaining: it can supply its own energy needs and operate on its own. The extreme case is a stand-alone microgrid: the power system covers only a small area and few users, and is not connected to the larger regional power system at all. Electrical equipment can build such a system (actually most regulatory sites are responsible for doing so) a microgrid can economically and efficiently serve a group of users with the same quality of service that other users in the utility area receive. But microgrids can also include situations where a group of separately independent energy consumers (each with sufficient on-site generation, storage and demand response control to meet their needs 100%) connect their private Power Systems.

Furthermore, one can talk about virtual microgrids, distribution areas of large power systems that manage local generation balance, storage, demand and line operation within their residential areas so that the transmission of electrical energy across borders is zero. Because of the generation and storage resources, and the different ways of local control, this local distribution system is bound by the larger traditional power system, but it does not often exchange power with it. The entire utility system is covered by small residential systems, which may or may not be connected to each other.

Related Posts